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“Cracking the Mystery of Chandrayaan-3: Why Landing on the Moon is Still a Challenge?”

Exploring Chandrayaan Missions: Overcoming Challenges to Lunar Landings

In the year 2019, India was diligently preparing for the historic moment of Chandrayaan-2’s touchdown on the lunar surface. Back then, the head of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), K. Sivan, had set aside the final 15 minutes of the landing as a nerve-wracking time. Fast forward almost four years, India is once again gazing towards the Moon. This time, the focus is on Chandrayaan-3’s upcoming landing on the southern pole of the lunar surface.

Sivan had remarked, “This will be a nail-biting moment for us. All eyes will be glued to our consoles. Telemetry parameters will continuously inform us if we are on the right path, yet the concern about the next moment will persist.”

Historical Perspective According to media reports, more than 20 successful lunar landings have been accomplished worldwide to date, with humans present on six occasions. Despite this, the skill of landing on the Moon’s surface remains a formidable feat for scientists. Over the past decade, only China has managed to achieve successful lunar landings three times, emphasizing the difficulty of the task. Most lunar landings occurred between 1966 and 1976.

Figures reveal that during the period from 1963 to 1976, attempts were made to land on the Moon 42 times, with 21 of them achieving success.

Challenges Explored Before contemplating the intricacies of landing, it’s crucial to consider the arduous journey spanning approximately 384,400 kilometers. Throughout such an extensive voyage, the possibility of mission failure remains a constant concern. Additionally, the re-entry of the spacecraft into Earth’s denser atmosphere could pose challenges. This is because the spacecraft depends on the planet’s dense atmosphere to slow down and safely descend. On the other hand, the Moon’s thin atmosphere complicates the landing process. During lunar landings, the propulsion system becomes the key to success. In simpler terms, the spacecraft needs to carry sufficient fuel to slow down its descent during landing.

Furthermore, the Moon lacks a GPS system, adding another layer of complexity. As a result, the onboard computers must perform calculations to accurately guide the landing site. This process becomes especially intricate when the spacecraft is just a few kilometers away from the lunar surface. Additionally, the Moon’s surface features dust, large boulders, and deep crevices, which can further complicate the landing process.

In conclusion, the journey to lunar landings has been marked by challenges and triumphs. As India embarks on another lunar mission with Chandrayaan-3, the lessons learned from previous endeavors will undoubtedly contribute to the success of this ambitious endeavor.